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    Denim Fabrics
    The major topics about denim fabrics that are used to make jeans are as follows:
    Weight / Thickness
    The weight of denim fabric is measured in ounces per squared yard (abb. OZ.), and it is as well a measure for the thickness of the fabric. Usually the weight of denim fabric ranges from 7 to 13 ounces per squared yard.
    The heavier the weight, the thicker the fabric. Usually denim shirts and T-shirts are made from fabric with 7-8 ounces, while 9-11 ounces are for the fashionable jeans pants, especially in summer, and 12-13 ounces are for classic men's jeans and for winter collections.
    The price of fabric changes as well if the weight changes as the consumption of cotton differs. The heavier the weight, the more expensive the fabric. However, the weight is not the most important factor in determining the fabric price, while some others count more.
    The conversion is as follows:
    1 Yard = 0.9144 Meter
    1 Ounce = 28.35 Grams
    1 Ounce / Squared Yard = 33.9 Grams / Squared Meter
    The denim fabrics are mainly classified as follows:
    Classic Denim / Twill
    This is the most common fabric and this is more used for classic men's wears
    Slub Yarn Denim
    The fabric with vertical, horizontal or both directional stripes / lines. The common fabric for fashion jeans
    100% cotton, cotton-polyester mix (50-50, 55-45, 65-35, 75-25 etc.), cotton-linen mix
    Stretch / Spandex / Elastic
    For some styles of jeans pants, especially hip-huggers for women, the denim fabric is required to be elastic at the horizontal direction to offer a better fit for the body. This feature is achieved by adding some synthetic elastic fiber horizontally into the fabric structure. The elastic fiber is usually elastane or spandex. The most famous brand of spandex is Lycra, from DuPont.
    The spandex is not as heat resistant as the cotton fiber. The common composition of stretch fabrics are:
    98% cotton, 2% spandex
    74% cotton, 24% polyester, 2% spandex
    Denim Fabric Dyeing is divided into two categories; Indigo Dyeing and second is Sulphur Dyeing. Indigo Dyeing is traditional blue colors or shades similar to blue colors. Sulphur Dyeing (also called Color Denim) is done for specially black colors and other colors like Pink, Grey, Rust, Mustard, Green and Red.
    Mercerization Process
    Mercerization is a process that makes cotton take dye better and increases its luster. It was originally developed and patented by a man named John Mercer in 1844. The cotton is treated with Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) to swell the fibers and increase the fiber's luster as well as its affinity for dye by increasing the surface area of the fiber. Afterwards, the fabric is soaked in an acidic bath to neutralize the base. Also, by swelling the fibers in this highly alkaline bath, it makes the cotton fibers stronger and "pre-shrunk" because the they don't retract, so the woven fabric will shrink less later. The fabric also has a smoother and more lustrous look when mercerized under tension.
    Mercerized Cotton Fabrics accept dye so much better than other fabrics, it's amazing. Mercerization gives a much richer and more vibrant color saturation than with unmercerized versions of the same cotton fabric.